International Journal of Innovative Trends in Engineering
Approved By International Serial Standard(ISSN), National Science Library(NSL) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources(NISCAIR)
ISSN: 2395-2946 (Online)

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IJITE - Volume 08, Number 01

Published On : August 2015
SNo. Paper Title & Authors Page Download
Literature Review on WiMAX Physical Layer Optimization
Ana Ahmed, Prof. Mohd. Sarwar Raeen, Prof. Aizaz Tirmizi
Abstract: The Viterbi algorithm (VA) is a popular method of decoding convolutional codes for its fairly low hardware complexity and relatively good performance. Soft-Output Viterbi Algorithm (SOVA) proposed by J. Hagenauer that is a modified Viterbi Algorithm. A SOVA decoder can not only take in soft quantized samples but also provide soft outputs by estimating the reliability of the individual symbol decisions. These reliabilities can be provided to the subsequent decoder to improve the decoding performance of the concatenated decoder. The SOVA decoder is designed to decode the convolutional codes defined in the ECMA-368 standard. Its code rate and constraint length is R=1/3 and K=7 respectively. To speed up the add-compare-select unit, that is always the speed bottleneck of the decoder. In the SOVA decoder, the delay line storing the path metric difference of every state contains the major portion of the overall required memory. A novel hybrid survivor path management architecture using the modified trace-forward method is proposed. It can reduce the overall required memory and achieve high throughput without consuming much power.
Keywords: WiMAX, Decoding Algorithms, SISO; Shannon limit and Viterbi algorithm.
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Literature Survey on AF Cooperative Networks
Hira Ahmed, Prof. Mohd. Sarwar Raeen, Prof. Abdul Samee Khan
Abstract: Cooperative communication is a new communication paradigm that allows multiple transceivers to collaborate as a cluster for data transmission and such clustering could greatly improve the transmission quality due to cooperative diversity. For conventional cooperation protocols, each cooperating device uses orthogonal channels to relay different messages for mitigating co-channel interference and avoiding transmission collision, but doing so would significantly reduce the bandwidth efficiency. One way to tackle this issue is to use wireless network coding, in which different messages are smartly combined at cooperating devices to save the channel use for data relaying. Network coding has been widely used in wire line networks, but only until very recently was grafted onto the wireless networks. In this review paper we aim to address these important issues and challenges and provide some theoretical guidelines for real system design. We study the fundamental diversity performance of un-coded cooperation systems with wireless network coding.
Keywords: Amplify-and-forward (AF), Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC).
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Literature Review on Performance Analysis of AF Cooperative Networks
Priyanka Singh, Prof. Anoop Tiwari
Abstract: The goal of this review work is to study and analyze various cooperative transmission techniques under the two common relaying signal processing methods, namely decode-and-forward (DF) and amplify-and-forward (AF) through literature review in order to improve the performance of AF Cooperative Networks .Cooperative communication networks have received significant interests from both academia and industry in the past decade due to its ability to provide spatial diversity without the need of implementing multiple transmit and/or receive antennas at the end-user terminals. These new communication networks have inspired novel ideas and approaches to find out what and how performance improvement can be provided with cooperative communications. The scenario that unequal error protection is analyzed to transmit different information classes at the source, a relaying protocol in a single relay network is proposed and its error performance is evaluated. It is shown that by setting the optimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) thresholds at the relay for different information classes, the overall error performance can be significantly improved. There is information feedback from the destination to the relays; a novel protocol is developed to achieve the maximum transmission throughput over a multiple-relay network while the bit-error rate satisfies a given constraint.
Keywords: Amplify-and-Forward (AF) Cooperative Networks.
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A Survey on Performance Evaluation using DSR in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network
Manish Kumar, Prof. S. R. Yadav
Abstract: The Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR) is a simple and efficient routing protocol designed specifically for use in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks of mobile nodes. DSR allows the network to be completely self-organizing and self-configuring, without the need for any existing network infrastructure or administration. The protocol is composed of the two mechanisms of Route Discovery and Route Maintenance, which work together to allow nodes to discover and maintain source routes to arbitrary destinations in the ad hoc network. The use of source routing allows packet routing to be trivially loop-free, avoids the need for up-to-date routing information in the intermediate nodes through which packets are forwarded, and allows nodes forwarding or overhearing packets to cache the routing information in them for their own future use. All aspects of the protocol operate entirely on-demand, allowing the routing packet overhead of DSR to scale automatically to only that needed to react to changes in the routes currently in use. Survey carried out on the DSR with its enhancement and also evaluates the performance.
Keywords: MANET, DSR, MDSR, Routing, AODV, DSDV.
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Altered Fingerprint Detection Techniques: A Review
Nagthane Rupali, Fadewar H. S.
Abstract: Now a days fingerprint recognition systems is facing a lot of problems. Detecting altered fingerprints is one of them. Fingerprint alteration is nothing but changing the ridge structure of fingerprint for masking one`s identity and evading fingerprint recognition system. Existing systems of fingerprint system have limited capability in recognizing altered fingerings. This paper gives the review of techniques used to detect altered fingerprints.
Keywords: Altered Fingerprint, NFIQ, SVM, Artificial Neural Network.
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ZigBee: A Next Generation Data Communication Technology
Kapil Dev Jha, Sharad Kumar Gupta
Abstract: The great potential of Wireless Sensor Network is being seen in industrial, consumer and commercial application. The wireless technology is becoming one of the most prominent areas of research. This paper focuses on the most widely used transceiver standard in Wireless Sensor Networks, a ZigBee technology. ZigBee over IEEE 802.15.4 defines specifications for low data rate WPAN (LR-WPAN) to support low power monitoring and controlling devices. This paper presents a ZigBee wireless standard, IEEE 802.15.4 specification, ZigBee device types, the protocol stack architecture and its applications. As pervasive computing system has potentially hundreds of inter-connected devices within a small area. This is not only a departure from the typical computer-peripheral model it is also a departure from the typical client-server model. ZigBee, based on IEEE 802.15.4, is an emerging standard within networked embedded systems. It has already been adopted by several major developers and the availability of devices and support systems is growing rapidly. This standard will become a foundation of future commonplace technologies. This paper includes background information on the technology regarding ZigBee networking, the selection of a development environment, and the design of a hands-on lab experience. We briefly discuss the necessity of teaching this technology.
Keywords: ZigBee, IEEE802.15.4, Medium Access Control (MAC), Physical Layer (PHY), Wireless Personal Area Networking (WPAN), Open Systems Interconnection (OSI).
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Shake Table Test on Laboratory Model – (G+1)
Tulika N Gupta
Abstract: This paper introduced the practical aspects of the shake table testing on the scaled model and taking its interference in the actual model. Readings are taking at the each floor by the FFT analyzer. The main objective of this project is to study the behavior of various structural models on shake tables available in the department of Applied Mechanics, by making shake table systems operational. The study is reported in different scaled models of buildings of various plans and materials like aluminum and steel. The acceleration of different responses of the structural models is measured with sinusoidal base excitation of different amplitudes and frequencies. It is observed that the study also involves comparison of shake table (experimental) responses with the corresponding area time history analysis results obtained using the structural analysis package SAP2000.
Keywords: Shake Table Testing, scaled model, FFT analyser, SAP2000.
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Comparison of Seismic Performance Due to Masonry in RC Framed Buildings
Punith Y M, Vinay H N
Abstract: Masonry infills are commonly used in buildings for functional and architectural reasons. However, their structural contributions are usually neglected in the design process. Behavior of building in the recent earthquake and clearly illustrate that the presence of infill walls has significant structural implications. The difficulties in considering masonry infill walls in the design processes are due to the lack of experimental and analytical results about their behavior under lateral loads. The structural contribution of masonry infill walls cannot simply be neglected particularly in regions of moderate and high seismicity where the frame-infill interaction may cause substantial increase in both stiffness and strength of the frame. In this paper work a 3D RC frame of six bays with ten storeys with and without masonry infill for different soil conditions is considered for which dynamic analysis which includes modal, equivalent static and response spectrum analysis has been carried out using Equivalent Lateral Force Method for different cases that include bare frame, infilled frame and X brace frame. This analysis is carried out using ETABS software and results such as natural frequency, base shear, displacement, storey shear, storey drift and accelerations are tabulated. Results obtained are compared and conclusions are drawn.
Keywords: Micro model, Macro model, Strut width, Reduction factor, Regression analysis, Response Spectrum analysis.
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Risk Analysis of RC Framed Structure using Fragility Curves
Venkatesh.S, Vinay H N
Abstract: The fragility is important tool for evaluating the seismic failure or seismic damage of the structure; these curves are optimising the provisional probability that response of the structure may exceed the certain performance limits of ground motion intensity. There various methods are available for developing fragility curve. The response surface based HDMR technique is one of the method for developing fragility curve. This HDMR method gives input and output relation and this relation can reduce the computational cost of analysis. The Monte Carlo simulation is one of the techniques for developing fragility curve. This is the old method and this method takes a very long time for analysis, on the other hand the HDMR method is more efficient than the Monte Carlo simulation. At present study the HDMR technique is use for development of fragility curves. As per HDMR method the metamodels are used in this study, for creating metamodels the RC frame is considered with some input variables and for analysis ETABS-2013 is used finally as per HDMR technique the Monte Carlo simulation is performed on the metamodels and plotting fragility curves.
Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, Fragility curves, High dimensional model representation, Metamodel.
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E-Shopping Adaptation in India using Hybrid TAM Model
Shreya Saxena, Dr. Bijith Makarkandy
Abstract: This Research study has proposed and validated a model for the E-shopping in India using Technology acceptance Model. Online retail companies invested huge amount of money to promote and support e-shopping. New ways are found to increase the customer’s satisfaction and service enhancement. TAM model which is popular among researchers to do research study as it contains all the elements to find out the factors which influence the technology related research. Few more factors are also added in the model to improve the model and to study the behavior of the customers of the users in depth. Results of this study show which factors influence the customers to use E-shopping (ES). The factors which are supported are Attitude, Behavioral Intention, Perceived usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use and Trust. AWR (P = 0.251), PR (P = 0.227), TRIL (P = 0.143) and COMP (P = 0.659) factors are removed as they are insignificant.This study on TAM model is well fitted and it is also found that TAM has been extensively used to study acceptance of internet and its applications, particularly for studying intentions and actions regarding internet shopping.
Keywords: TAM, E-shopping, E-TAM, SEM.
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New Approach for Cloud storage Security using Hybrid Mechanism
Nisha Yadav, Dushant Verma
Abstract: Data and computation integrity and security are major concerns for users of cloud computing facilities. Today's clouds typically place centralized, universal trust in all the cloud's nodes. This simplistic, full-trust model has the negative consequence of amplifying potential damage from node compromises, leaving such clouds vulnerable to myriad attacks. Unfortunately, adopting cloud computing has required users to cede control of their data to cloud providers, and a malicious provider could compromise the data's confidentiality and integrity. In this paper presents implementation of the cloud storage security mechanism that helps to secure data and provide better security form unwanted attack.
Keywords: TPA, MD5, Cloud Storage, Security.
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