International Journal of Innovative Trends in Engineering
Approved By International Serial Standard(ISSN), National Science Library(NSL) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources(NISCAIR)
ISSN: 2395-2946 (Online)

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IJITE - Volume 02, Number 01

Published On : February 2015
SNo. Paper Title & Authors Page Download
A Survey: Heterogeneous Clustering Approach In Wireless Sensor Network
Divya Jain, Dr. Tasneem Bano Rehmaan
Abstract: In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) energy is one of the most important factors. Maximum utilization of energy of every node is a critical factor. In routing the main purpose is to optimize the network architecture for various applications and maximize the utilization of all resources. The framework and architecture of every wireless sensor networks are different based on the application. This paper presents a survey about the clustering and routing techniques for wireless sensor network (WSN). Various protocols are also comparing, this comparison reveals the important features which are to be kept in mind while designing new protocols for clustering sensor network.
Keywords: WSN, Sensor nodes, Routing, Clustering.
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Implementation of advanced VHO algorithm for seamless connectivity in HWN using MATLAB
Ms. Pallavi Marathe, Mr. Mahesh Navale, Dr.U.S.Sutar
Abstract: Presently, various wireless technologies are in place which forms the Heterogeneous Wireless Network (HWN) and provides the connectivity to the mobile users by integrating with each other. The Mobile device that is entered in heterogeneous network can be connected with multiple wireless technologies and maintain seamless connectivity in highly dynamic environment, but the efficiency of these technologies depends upon this connectivity to the user and this introduces here the concept of handover as a vertical handover. The most essential requirement for Seamless vertical handover is that the Received Signal Strength (RSS), which should always be good. During the vertical handoff procedure the decision of handoff is very important step because it can affect the normal working of the communication system. An incorrect handoff decision or selection of a non-optimal network can result in undesirable effects such as higher costs, poor service experience, call drop and may degrade the Quality of Service (QoS) current communication. The main problem in HWN is available bandwidth (BW), which is limited and the number of users is growing rapidly, so it’s a real challenge to maintain the received signal strength in a healthy stage. In this paper the proposed, cost-effective exhaustive approach is explained for seamless vertical handover and mobility management. The objective of this paper is to determine the conditions under which vertical handoff should be performed in heterogeneous wireless networks.
Keywords: HWN, RSS, QoS, BW.
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Enhancement of Power and Stability using SSSC with Fuzzy Compensator in A Power System
Patel Pinkeshkumar, Hitesh Lade
Abstract: In recent years, power demand has increased substantially while the expansion of power generation and transmission has been severely limited due to limited resources and green limitations. As a result, some transmission lines are heavily loaded and the system stability becomes a power transfer-limiting factor. Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) controllers have been mainly used for solving various power system steady state control problems. in this theses work an optimized fuzzy logic based static synchronous series compensator is designed in place of a PI controlling technique and simulations are carried on a long transmission line by varying the load step by step and results are compared with and without fuzzy logic controller. The proposed fuzzy logic controller improves power system transient stability and system damping. Fuzzy logic controller works according to system behavior as Controller input parameters are carefully considered to provide effective damping for power system. The capacity of each controller is obtained based on simulation results of the fuzzy logic procedure. Results carried out by simulation indicate that this controller can improve stability margin of the system in the case of transient stability and provide considerable damping of power oscillation.
Keywords: Fuzzy Logic Controller, SSSC, Transient Stability, Oscillation damping.
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Design Defect Diagnosis in SPARC T1 Processor
BrijMohan, Lekha Pankaj K, Nutan Hegde
Abstract: Here Verification has indisputably become the primary challenge today with recent industry studies estimating that half of all chips manufactured require one or more re-spins. This work addresses the problem of verifying the correctness of pre-silicon models of a multithreaded multicored processor (SPARC T1) and aims in replicating an industry level problem and solution approach for verifying a real processor design (state-of-the-art). The approach in classifying general type of bugs that can get into the EXU unit of SPARC T1 processor design and introducing design defects in the RTL. Several defective models were developed covering the entire functional blocks in the EXU and several coverage models for the test cases run on the defective design were also developed. This work tends to look back at the fact that verification is a process that is never truly complete. We understand that designs are error-prone and so, the objective of verification is to detect the errors. Yet, no one can really prove that the design is error-free.
Keywords: SPARC T1 Processor, Multicore, verification.
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Secrete Message Transformation Using Image Fragmentation Technique
D. Saravanan
Abstract: A new type of computer art picture called Secret-Fragment visible mixture picture is proposed, which is created without human intervention by composing small fragments of a given image to become a target image in a mixture form, achieving an effect of embedding the given picture visibly but secretly in the resulting mixture image. This effect of information hiding is useful for covert message or safe keeping of safe images. To create a mixture image of this type from a given secret color image, the 3-D color space is modified into a new 1-D color scale, based on which a new picture similarity measure is proposed for selecting from a database a target image that is the most similar to the given secret image .The information of the starting picture correct series is set in into randomly-selected pixels in the created mixture image by a lossless alternate scheme using a secret key. With help of the key function only the needed picture is going to be recovered. The proposed method, designed for dealing with color images, of different image format and dimensional size. Secret-Fragment visible mixture image is used to encrypt the image. Secret Image is divided into small fragments then embedding those fragments on To a pre selected target image. The fragmented tiles are embedded by Lossless alternate scheme using secret key. Compression technique is used to reduce the size of encrypted image. Recovering the secret image from mixture image is done by using the key with reverse replacement Scheme.
Keywords: Image Searching, Image Segmentation, Image key frame, Secret Fragmented image, Secret Key.
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Denoising ECG Signal using Empirical Wavelet Transform
Alkka B Raj, Manoj Kumar S
Abstract: Denoising signals has been achieved as one of the greatest application in the field of Signal processing.In biomedical signal processing the main challenge is the noise embedded within the physiological signals.ECG signal denoising process in an embedded platform it is a challenge to deal with several issues.The analysis of the ECG signal has a great importance in the detection of cardiac abnormalities.The electrocardiograph signals are often affected by noise.The noises that commonly affect are power line interference ,instrumentation noise ,external electromagnetic field interference.The noises are classified according to the frequency content present in the signal.It is essential to reduce the disturbances in ECG signal to improve the accuracy and the reliability.Different types of the denoising methods have been adopted to remove the noise.In this paper a denoising technique for ECG signal based on the Empirical Wavelet Transform has been adopted.By using this technique an adaptive decomposition of the fourier spectrum is carried out.Spectrum is segmented depending on the information present in the signal.The proposed technique has been computed with different values of noise levels. The result shows that as the percentage of the noise level increases the SNR decreases gradually. The SNR has reached almost value of about 30 it shows better performance while denoising with EWT.
Keywords: Empirical wavelet transform (EWT ), Signal to Noise ratio (SNR),Electro Cardiogram (ECG), Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD),Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF), Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR).
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A MHR Tree Approach To String Transformation
Mrs. Vinothini R
Abstract: String transformation is an important problem in many applications; it must be accurate and efficient. String transformation is a task as follows. An input string is given, the k most likely output strings are generated by the system corresponding to the input string. This project proposes a tree approach to string transformation and to retrieve the data, which is both accurate and efficient. This approach includes the use of a method named log linear model for training the model, and an algorithm for generating the top k candidates, whether it is there or is not a dictionary that is predefined. The log linear model is defined as a conditional probability distribution (CPD) of an output string and a rule set for the conditioned transformation on an input string. The learning method includes maximum calculation for parameter estimation. The string generation algorithm is based on pruning which is guaranteed to generate the top k optimal candidates. The proposed method is applied to correction of spelling errors in queries as well as reformulation of queries in web search. Experimental results on wide range of data show that the proposed approach is very accurate and efficient improving upon existing methods in terms of accuracy and efficiency in different formats. And the proposed system uses MHR-Tree for string matching process. In existing AC-Tree have related results only, but in MHR-Tree have accurate result of user’s query. The MHR-Tree has a root and multiple leaves. The string matching process based on this root and leaves. So finally, user can get expected and accurate result and it provides good performance than existing.
Keywords: MHR Tree, Aho-Corasick Algorithm.
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The Design of Encryption Algorithm In Advanced Encryption Standard With The Construction of Optimum In Less Occupancy Area of S-Boxes
Mohanraj S.
Abstract: Cryptography plays an important role in the security of data transmission. In digital communications the data is sent through the wires or air and thus it is not protected from eavesdropping. Therefore, confidentiality of the transferring data is of extreme importance for any communication system. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) S-Box is constructed on the basis of Composite Field Arithmetic (CFA) with the Galois field GF (((22)2)2). The previous technique accommodates more space and more circuitry elements in the implementation. To overcome this problem the new novel technique as common sub-expression elimination algorithm is employed in this implementation of S-boxes. The first case S-Box is implemented with the help of MODELSIM in Verilog language. This technique leads to the low number of gates, low occupancy area and less delay in the implementation architecture. The other case of S-Box was implemented with the corresponding functional blocks. The maximum optimized S-Box architecture was used in the AES technique for the efficient encryption algorithm in data encryptions.
Keywords: Security, Cryptography, Advanced encryption standard (AES), S-Box, VLSI, MODELSIM.
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Precision Agriculture Prospects using Wireless Sensor Network
Vijaykumar Thakor,Prof.Chirag Bhatt, Prof. Mehul Patel
Abstract: As population increases, it becomes necessary to improve the efficiency of farming practice. Advancement in wireless sensor network made this idea possible which was nearly impossible few decades ago. Real-time data can be collected using Wireless sensor network which can be useful for taking various types of decision for farming practice. so that large amount of output can be gained using limited amount of resources and there is no waste of resources. Study some of the agricultural parameters such as soil, Water, crops, Irrigation, Chemical fertilizers issues and environmental issues of specific region. Adopt technique for controlling the agricultural parameters that Use different sensors to sense the agricultural parameters, Collect transmit the information, wireless receiver receives the information. Design the module which useful in rural development and observation of readings. Always measure the performance and benefits to the farmers. WSN is an intelligent private network made by a large number of sensor nodes which do specific function. Precision agriculture and WSN applications combine an exciting new area of research that will greatly improve quality in agricultural production, precision irrigation. There are potential applications of wireless sensor network technology in agricultural systems such as real time field monitoring, automated irrigation control, monitoring, and remote operation of field machinery. The information centre stores and processes the data.
Keywords: Precision Agriculture, Wireless Sensor Network.
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Novel Composite Field Architecture for Advanced Encryption System S-Box
A. Raja, M. Ramya, V. Velumani
Abstract: In this paper, two novel composite field arithmetic (CFA) for Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) S-boxes of the field GF(((22)2)2) are designed. The best construction is selected after a sequence of algorithmic and architectural optimization processes. Furthermore, for each composite field constructions, there exists eight possible isomorphic mappings. Therefore, after the exploitation of a new common sub expression elimination algorithm, the isomorphic mapping that results in the minimal implementation area cost is chosen. Through the exploitation of both algebraic normal form and seven stages fine-grained pipelining, the best case achieves less area and minimum delay.
Keywords: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), algebraic normal form (ANF), composite field arithmetic (CFA), S-box.
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Restraining Hybrid Mobile Virus Propagation
S.Rajkumar, P. E. Rubini
Abstract: Mobile Virus propagation has been increased with rapid growth of smart phones. Proportionately it becomes increasingly difficult to secure them against attack in the form of virus, which may disturb the operation as well as the function of the mobile phones. It can cause system failure, wasting memory space, extra power and data leakage. Hence forbidding mobile virus propagation is very important one. SEIR model was proposed to restrain hybrid spread with less cost. N-gram analyzer to filter the incoming virus message in the mobile and the virus message is stored in separate folder in mobile and this will reduce the traffic of mobile network compared to existing method.
Keywords: SEIR, hybrid spread, n-gram analyser
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