International Journal of Innovative Trends in Engineering
Approved By International Serial Standard(ISSN), National Science Library(NSL) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources(NISCAIR)
ISSN: 2395-2946 (Online)

News Updates: IJITE June 2018 Volume 42 Edition Published Sucessfully.                Call for Papers: IJITE Inviting Research Papers For Volume 43 (July 2018) Edition.

IJITE - Volume 10, Number 01

Published On : October 2015
SNo. Paper Title & Authors Page Download
Performance Analysis of Fast Sign Detection for Computer Arithmetic Residue Number System: A Survey
Mehul Kumar Pandya, Prof. Sachin Bandewar
Abstract: Numbers play a significant role in computer systems. Numbers are the basis and object of computer operations. Remarkably, the main task of computers is computing, which deals with numbers all the time. Humans have been familiar with numbers for thousands of years, whereas the representation of these numbers in computer systems is a new issue. A computer can provide only finite digits for a number representation (fixed word length), though a real number may be composed infinite digits. Because of the trade-offs between word length and hardware size, and between propagation delay and accuracy, various types of number representation have been proposed and adopted. This research article we are presenting the literature review on the Residue Number System (RNS) for performance analysis with emphasis on its arithmetic advantages in computers. The RNS is such an integer system exhibiting the capabilities to support parallel, carry-free addition, borrow-free subtraction, and single step multiplication without partial product.
Keywords: Computer arithmetic, residue number system, restricted moduli set, sign detection.
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Experimental Study of R406A & R600A Blends As Alternatives To R12
Parag Dubey, Sohail Bux
Abstract: In the vent of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) phase-out, identify long term alternative to meet requirements in respect of system performance and service is an important area of research in the refrigeration and are conditioning industry. This work focuses on experimental study of the performance of eco-friendly refrigerant mixtures. Mixtures of three existing refrigerants namely: R600a (n-butane), and R406A (55%R22/4%R600a/41%R142b)were considered for this research. These refrigerants were mixed in various ratios, studied and compared with R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) which was used as the control for the experimentation. The rig to be used in the experimentation is a 2 hp (1.492 kW) domestic refrigerator, designed based on 40c condensing and -10c evaporating temperatures. The rig was tested with R-12, and blends of the three refrigerants. During the experimentation, both evaporator (Te) and condenser (Tc) temperatures were measured. These were used to determine the heat absorbed in evaporator (Qe) and the heat rejected in condenser (Qc) The results show that R406a/R600a mixture in the ratio 9:11 can be used as alternative to R-12 in domestic refrigerators, without the necessity of changing the compressor lubricating oil.
Keywords: Refrigerants, Alternatives, Blends, COP, Performance, Comparison, new-refrigerants.
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A Survey on Performance And Security In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Navneet Kumar, Prof. S R Yadav
Abstract: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a new field of communication operating in an extremely unpredictable and dynamic environment. These networks are gaining increasing popularity in recent years because of their ease of deployment. A MANET consists of collection of wireless mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other without the use of any centralized administration. In ad hoc networks, routing protocols are challenged with establishing and maintaining multi-hop routes with security in the face of mobility, bandwidth limitation and power constraints. The work is concentrated primarily on the provision of security in the On-demand routing protocols like Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) ,Ad hoc On Demand Vector (AODV) and since they are efficient for routing in large ad hoc networks and they initiate and maintain the routes that are currently needed. The work proposes the application of Dual Hash Authentication Technique (DHT) in association with Self-Healing and Optimizing Routing Technique (SHORT) in AODV. In Dual Hash Authentication, one hash function is used to authenticate the received routing packets and the other one is used to prevent the current nodes modifying the routing information themselves. SHORT helps all the neighbouring nodes to monitor the route and try to optimize itself, if a better local sub-path is available. The work also proposes Triple Hash Authentication Technique (THT) which is almost similar to DHT but included HMAC authentication for the third one between the destination node and source node. This THT is also applied to the on-demand routing protocols as mentioned above. In addition to the above techniques, Digital Signature mechanism is applied to the routing protocol DSR and its performance is compared with DSR and AODV. The work further proposes the application of intrusion detection system (IDS) and GeOmetric DOMinated set algorithm(GODOM). The IDS is used to check every packet using some threshold value in order to identify the malicious packets. GODOM algorithm is used to find out the number of active nodes in which the IDS can be installed. This work is also applied to both AODV and DSR.
Keywords: MANET, DSR, MDSR, Routing, AODV, DSDV.
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Shadow Detection and Removal from QuickBird Images
Aparna P, Kavitha N Nair
Abstract: The urban high resolution color remote sensing images contain shadows. To obtain the exact picture of the image, the shadows are to be detected and removed. It is in this context, shadow detection and removal method for QuickBird images becomes relevant. The image captured by QuickBird satellite is termed as QuickBird image. In this method shadow features are taken into consideration during superpixel image segmentation, and suspected shadows are extracted according to the statistical features of the images. Some dark objects which could be mistaken for shadows are ruled out according to spatial relationship between objects and object properties. The true shadows which are detected are to be removed. For that the boundary of actual shadow is traced. Inner and outer outline lines of the detected shadow are then generated. For shadow removal, first the IOOPLs are obtained with respect to the boundary lines of shadows. Sections obtained through IOOPL similarity matching is analyzed whether they are homogeneous or not. There is presence of shadow if inner and outer boundaries are not homogeneous in IOOPL matching. Shadow removal is then performed by implementing combined shadow removal technique. These methods can accurately detect and remove shadows.
Keywords: Combined shadow removal, inner-outer outline profile line (IOOPL), QuickBird image, shadow detection, shadow removal, superpixel segmentation.
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A Survey of Recursive Learning Approach for License Plate Matching with Normalized Edit Distance Metric
Anand Chourey, Avinash Sharma, Madhuvan Dixit
Abstract: License plate recognition (LPR) technology is a mature yet imperfect technology used for automated toll collection and speed enforcement. The portion of license plates that can be correctly recognized and matched at two separate stations is typically in the range of 35% or less. Existing methods for improving the matching of plates recognized by LPR units rely on intensive manual data reduction, such that the misread plates are manually entered into the system. Recently, an advanced matching technique that combines Bayesian probability and Levenshtein text-mining techniques was proposed to increase the accuracy of automated license plate matching. The key component of this method is what we called the association matrix, which contains the conditional probabilities of observing one character at one station for a given observed character at another station. However, the estimation of the association matrix relies on the manually extracted ground truth of a large number of plates, which is a cumbersome and tedious process. To overcome this drawback, in this study, we propose an ingenious novel RLLPR-NED (Recursive Learning License Plate Recognition-Normalized Edit Distance) algorithm that eliminates the need for extracting ground truth manually. These automatically learned association matrices are found to perform well in the correctness in plate matching, in comparison with those generated from the painstaking manual method. Furthermore, these automatically learned association matrices outperform their manual counterparts in reducing false matching rates. The automatic RLLPR-NED method is also cheaper and easier to implement and continues to improve and correct itself over time.
Keywords: RLLPR-NED (Recursive Learning License Plate Recognition with Normalized Edit Distance), text mining, vehicle tracking.
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To Study Earth Tube Heat Exchanger Cooling of Air in Different Month of Bhopal MP
Mithilesh Kumar, Sanjay Kumbare
Abstract: The aim of this study to test the performance of horizontal ground heat exchanger. An experimental set-up has been constructed for climatic condition for space cooling. Results obtained during experiment will be present and discuss. The ground temperature at several depths was measured in different season with 25 m of length buried at 3 m depth, covers 38% of the total cool requirement of the tested room. This study showed that the ground heat exchanger provide a new way of cooling buildings. This experiment will perform LNCT Energy park Bhopal.
Keywords: Eath Tube Heat Exchanger, Blower.
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A Survey of Technology Issues in High performance GaN/AlGaN HEMT Devices
Jayachandran M
Abstract: TiSi2 and TiC electrode can be Ohmic contact without depending on dislocation in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) and decrease in thickness of AlGaN was confirmed with higher annealing temperature. Therefore, reduction of AlGaN thickness is an important role of decreasing contact resistance. TiSi2 and TiC can be Ohmic electrode materials, which should realize dislocation independent conduction and also forming nitrogen vacancy at the surface of AlGaN. Moreover, thickness of AlGaN has decreased without degrading 2DEG density and lower contact resistance rc can be obtained due to thinner AlGaN barrier. As Compared with conventional contact electrodes, annealing temperature is high, but these electrodes are useful Ohmic-contact-material for future dislocation-free wafers. Surface morphology has improved in some extent by using non-gold electrode and Surface defect causes the leakage current and the current collapse, which are estimated by I-V measurement and XPS.
Keywords: TiSi2, TiC, HEMT, 2DEG, Contact resistance (c).
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A Novel Reduction Technique For Wallace Multiplier Reduction
P. Senthilkumar, J. Sasithar, D. Deepak, S. S. Ganeshkumar, S. Iyyappan
Abstract: Power dissipation of integrated circuits is a major concern for VLSI circuit designers. A Wallace tree multiplier is an improved version of tree based multiplier architecture. It uses carry save addition algorithm to reduce the latency. This paper proposes new reduction method that is the use of half adders is greatly reduced and the full adders is increased, than the standard Wallace multipliers. As half adders does not reduce the partial product bits the delay in both modified and the conventional Wallace is kept the same. As a result the circuit complexity is reduced by 20% and Power Consumption is reduced by 10%.
Keywords: Multiplier, Wallace, Power Consumption, VLSI Circuits.
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Design of MEMS based temperature Sensor for Contactless Measurement
A. Balaji, S. Ezhilarasan, S. S. Ganeshkumar
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to design a MEMS temperature sensor based on a cascade three-stage “bent- beam ” structure . A suspended structure mechanically deforms in response to the change in ambient temperature , and then, a displacement is obtained; the structure is composed of three cascaded systems in order to enhance sensor sensitivity . The final conversion is made to an electrical signal that is obtained by using a capacitor having one electrode fixed to the substrate and one electrode embedded into the moving tip of the MEMS sensor. The readout of the unknown temperature is therefore remotely performed by coupling the variable MEMS capacitor to a fixed inductor to compose a resonant LC circuit, which is magnetically coupled to a reader circuit placed outside the environment where the measurement takes place. The temperature to be measured is therefore first converted into a displacement that, in turn, induces a change in a capacitor value; a variation in the resonant frequency of an LC circuit is finally observed through the remote readout circuit.
Keywords: Bent- beam structure s, contactless sensors, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), temperature sensors.
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Switched Inductor Z-Source Inverter fed Induction Motor
M. Sudhakaran, G. Muthuselvi, A. Bharathi, S. Subathra, M. Shanmugasundaram
Abstract: Now a day’s three phase locomotives consist of converter inverter technology for controlling the traction motors which are squirrel cage induction motors fed by voltage source inverter. This paper presents a developed impedance-type power inverter which is known as switched inductor (SL) Z-source inverter. To expand voltage adjustability, the switched inductor Z-source inverter employs a unique switched inductor impedance network to couple the main circuit and the power source. The voltage buck inversion capability is also provided in the proposed inverter for those applications that need low ac voltages. The proposed concepts of switched-inductor Z-source inverter can be applied to various applications of dc-ac, ac-ac, dc-dc and ac-dc power conversion. Matlab/Simulink software is used to validate the analysis.
Keywords: Converter, switched-inductor, voltage conversion ratio, boost ability, Z-source inverter.
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Vehicle Navigation and Accident Identification in Foggy Weather Condition using GSM and GPS
S. Iyyappan, D. Deepak, K. Vijayakumar, Bakkiyalakshmi
Abstract: The objective of this project is to efficiently avoid early accidents in bad weather conditions such as snow fall and rainy. In our proposed method the relative distance of all the vehicles around a particular vehicle is estimated and alerts the driver to avoid early collisions. Besides this facility, we also provide an accident detection system which detects the accidents and sends the information about the location of the accident to the control station and relatives. It is most useful information to save the persons.
Keywords: Vehicle Navigation, Foggy Weather, GSM, GPS.
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Literature Review on Multiple-Input Multiple-Output- Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
Hareesh Athnere, Prof. Ambikesh Prasad Gupta, Dr. Shilpi Sharma
Abstract: Wirelеss Communication Wirelеss communications is one of the most activе arеas of tеchnology developmеnt and a rapidly growing branch of the widеr fiеld of communications Systеms. In the modеrn day world we are living today, communication has becomе an intеgral part of our livеs in differеnt forms. Communicatе with one anothеr via the avenuеs of telephonеs (fixеd and mobilе), radio and telеvision, the internеt on both mini and macro computеr tеrminals, just to mеntion a few. Notwithstanding the typе of communication Systеms bеing used, the threе major componеnts of the communication Systеms rеmain the samе for all. Thesе includе sourcе, channеl and sink (transmittеr, channеl and receivеr respectivеly). Both the transmittеr and the receivеr could eithеr be fixеd or mobilе, and thеy are separatеd by the channеl. The channеl can be wirе linе or wirelеss. Irrespectivе of the typе of channеl, its effеcts on the transmittеd signal from the transmittеr through the channеl to the receivеr are similar. In this reviеw papеr we havе presentеd the literaturе reviеw on MIMO-OFDM which is vеry significant for wirelеss communication.
Keywords: Multiplе-Input Multiplе-Output (MIMO) - Orthogonal Frequеncy Division Multiplеxing (OFDM); channеl еstimation; multipath propagation; MMSE; divеrsity.
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